A desexed bunny can be litter trained more easily
Desexing your bunny will help with litter training if you find him/her pooing outside the tray. Desexing also helps with odour. For some reason, an undesexed bunny's urine will have an odour, whereas a desexed bunny seems to be almost odour free (which is great when inside the home).
What kind of litter tray?
The best litter tray for your bunny will depend on their size. You can buy cheap cat litter trays at $2 shops which are great for smaller bunnies. For bigger buns, you can purchase larger trays at hardware stores or we tend to use under bed storage containers and take off the wheels. They are great for bigger buns!!
What to put in the tray?
We always line our litter trays with a thick layer of flat newspaper. We then top with a thick layer of oaten hay. If you can't get oaten hay, grass hay is also good. The hay works well in litter trays because it stays up higher so little feet don't touch anything wet below and entices the bunny to jump in and use the tray as a "poo & chew station".
Where to place the tray?
Any corner of the room and against a wall. Rabbits don't like a litter tray to be too exposed so as long as the tray is up against a wall, they will want to hop in & investigate.
Don't get angry
If your bunny wees somewhere other than the tray don't yell or hit your bunny as this will do more harm than good. Clean the area they urinated on (use warm water & a splash of white vinegar), place a towel on top & place the tray on that area. You might need more than one tray at the beginning to cover other areas of the room.
Change the tray every day
The litter tray should be changed every day without fail. If it wasn't changed every day, the tray would start to smell and your bunny will not eat the soiled hay. By keeping a close eye on your rabbit's litter tray daily, you will also be able to monitor whether the tray has been used. If the tray hasn't been used, then something may be wrong with your bunny.
Cleaning the litter tray
Cleaning & scrubbing out litter trays can be done as much as you like. If you line the tray daily with clean thick newspaper, you'll find that you won't need to scrub out the tray too often as the paper keeps the tray quite clean. When you do want to scrub out the tray, only use water with a splash of white vinegar to clean trays. Rabbits are very sensitive creatures and strong chemicals should never be used near a rabbit.
What not to do!
Many people tend to use cat litter in rabbit litter trays. Rabbits see their litter trays as a comfort zone to play in, chew stuff & go to the toilet there as well. By using cat litter, your rabbit will inevitably ingest the product because that's what bunnies do! Rabbits use their teeth to test out what's around them & will eat whatever is in front of them. All cat litters are designed to absorb liquid & swell. Just imagine what it would do sitting in a rabbit's stomach!! If you use cat litter in your bunny's tray (particularly the clay variety), chuck it out & get some hay!!! (for the health of your rabbit!!)